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Курсовая Притчи басни мифы английской литературы их стилистические особенности - Стилистика

  • Тема: Притчи басни мифы английской литературы их стилистические особенности
  • Автор: Юлия
  • Тип работы: Курсовая
  • Предмет: Стилистика
  • Страниц: 27
  • ВУЗ, город: Москва
  • Цена(руб.): 1500 рублей

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Выдержка

catch the bad things and put them back in the box but it was too late. They all flew away.
But the very last thing to fly out of the box, as Pandora sat there crying, was not as ugly as the others. In fact it was beautiful. It was Hope, which Zeus sent to keep people going when all the nasty things got them down.
Theseus – Тесей
Prince Theseus was the son of King Aegeus of Athens, not too long before the Trojan War (so maybe around 1300 BC). At this time the Minoans, who lived on the island of Crete, had a very strong navy. The Minoan king, King Minos, used to send his navy to attack Greek cities, including Athens. Everyone was afraid of him and his soldiers.
King Aegeus had an agreement with King Minos that if Minos would leave Athens alone, Aegeus would send seven Athenian boys and seven Athenian girls to Crete every nine years, to be eaten by a monster that lived on Crete, the Minotaur. They had been doing this for a long time, but of course the boys and girls who had to go be eaten and their moms and dads hated it! One day it was once again time to send the children to Crete. Everyone was crying. Prince Theseus said that he was going to go with them and kill the Minotaur, to save these children and all the ones who might be sent in the future. His dad, King Aegeus, begged him not to go. Aegeus was afraid that the Minotaur would get Theseus too! But Theseus said he was, too, going to go, and he got on the boat. The boat had a black sail, to show how sad everyone was. King Aegeus made Theseus promise to change to a white sail if he lived to come home, to announce that he had won, and Theseus promised.   When they got to Crete, King Minos and his daughter Princess Ariadne (arr-ee-AD-nee) came out of their palace to see Theseus and the other Athenian children. King Minos just said to throw them in to the Minotaur the next day, but Ariadne fell in love with Theseus (yes, just like that!) and she wanted to help him. So late that night Ariadne gave Theseus a sword and a ball of string. She told him to tie the string to the door of the Labyrinth where the Minotaur lived (a big maze) and unroll it behind him as he went so he could find his way back out, and to use the sword to kill the Minotaur. Theseus thanked Ariadne very much and promised to marry her if he escaped without being eaten by the Minotaur.  The next morning all the Athenians went into the Labyrinth. The others were afraid, but Prince Theseus tied the string to the door and went to find the Minotaur. Finally he did find the Minotaur and there was a big fight, but then Theseus killed the Minotaur with his sword and followed the string back to the door. The other Athenians were very happy to see him and to hear that he had killed the Minotaur!Princess Ariadne opened the door and let them out, and they all ran away to their ship and sailed away: Theseus, Ariadne, and all the other Athenians. 
Oedipus – Эдип
Sophocles wrote this very famous play in the 500's BC. It is mainly about fate, and how men do not control their own fate, no matter how much they try. It's about accepting that there are things that are beyond your control.
This is the story:
When Laius (LIE-us) and Jocasta, the king and queen of Thebes, had a baby, Laius went to the oracle at Delphi (DELL-fee) to ask about it. But the oracle told Laius that his son would murder him. Horrified, Laius ordered that his baby son should be exposed in the woods with a pin through his feet to keep him from crawling away. And a shepherd did this. But the baby was rescued and taken to the king and queen of Corinth, who wanted a son and couldn't have one, and he adopted him. The queen of Corinth called the baby Oedipus, which means swollen foot, on account of the pin through his feet. But she didn't tell Oedipus that he was adopted. When Oedipus grew up, he also listened to an oracle, and the oracle told him that he would kill his father and marry his mother. He was horrified, and ran away from Corinth that night, trying to escape his fate. As he travelled down the road in his chariot, with his horses, he came to a crossroads. Another chariot came to the crossroads at the same time, but it went through without letting Oedipus go. Oedipus was angry at this and got out and killed the other man.  When Oedipus got to the town of Thebes, a little later, he found the great Sphinx there. The Sphinx sat in front of Thebes and asked everyone who came there a riddle. If you could answer it, the Sphinx let you go, but if you could not answer the riddle, then the Sphinx ate you. Nobody ever knew the answer. This was the Sphinx's riddle: What goes on four feet in the morning, two feet at noon, and three feet in the evening? (Click here for the answer). When Oedipus answered the riddle correctly, the Sphinx was so upset that she killed herself. Oedipus went on into Thebes. When he got there, the Thebans were very upset because somebody had killed their king, Laius. But they were happy to hear that Oedipus had figured out the riddle of the Sphinx. So they made Oedipus their new king. As part of becoming the new king, Oedipus married the queen, Jocasta. Many years went by. Oedipus and Jocasta had four children, two boys and two girls, and they got old. One day a plague came to Thebes. All over Thebes, people were dying of the plague. King Oedipus sent a messenger to the oracle at Delphi to find out why the gods had sent this terrible plague. The oracle told the messenger that Thebes had a bad man in it, and they had to find him and get rid of him or the plague would go on killing people. This is where Sophocles began his play. In the play, Oedipus tries to find out who this bad man might be, and with the help of the blind seer Tiresias he gradually realizes that he himself, Oedipus, is the bad man, because he has killed his father (the man at the crossroads) and married his mother, just as the oracle said he would. When he finds out that even though he tried hard to escape his fate it has found him anyway, he is very upset. He pokes out his own eyes with a stick. When Jocasta hears the news, she hangs herself until she is dead. Fin
Sophocles wrote this very famous play in the 500's BC. It is mainly about fate, and how men do not control their own fate, no matter how much they try. It's about accepting that there are things that are beyond your control.

2.2. Религиозные английские притчи: образцы исследования
На английском языке есть много разных версий Библии . Первая протестантская это перевод King James 1611 г. Она обозначается буквами KJV, то-есть King James Version. Русская Зарубежная Церковь пользуется этой версией. Так как в ней язык не всегда понятный, то была выработана новая KJV (New KJV) NKJV версия. Она более понятная и мы ее здесь используем.
О милосердном самарянине.(Луки 10:25-37). (30янв10)Один законник, желая испытать Иисуса Христа, спросил Его: «Учитель, какая наибольшая заповедь в законе»? Иисус Христос ответил ему: «Возлюби Господа Бога твоего всем сердцем твоим и всею душею твоею и всем разумением твоим. Это первая и наибольшая заповедь. Вторая же подобна ей: возлюби ближнего, как самого себя. На этих двух заповедях утверждается весь закон и пророки».
Другой законник о второй заповеди спросил Его: «а кто мой ближний»? Иисус же Христос в ответ сказал ему такую притчу: Один иудей шел из Иерусалима и попался разбойникам, которые сняли с него одежду, изранили его и ушли, оставив его едва живым. Случайно той дорогой шел священник посмотрел на него и прошел мимо. Также и левит был на том месте, подошел, посмотрел и прошел мимо. За ними тем же путем проезжал самарянин. Увидев израненного иудея, он сжалился над ним, перевязал его раны, возливая на них елей и вино, посадил на своего осла, привез в гостиницу и там заботился о нем. А на другой день, отъезжая, он дал хозяину гостиницы два динария и сказал: «позаботься о нем и, если издержишь что более, я, когда возвращусь, отдам тебе».
После этого Иисус Христос спросил законника: «как думаешь, кто из этих троих был ближний попавшемуся разбойникам»? - «Оказавший ему милость», ответил законник. Тогда Иисус Христос сказал ему: «иди, и ты поступай так же».
About Good Samaritan.(Luke 10:25-37). (30янв10)One lawyer, wishing to test Jesus Christ, has asked Him: "The Teacher, what is the greatest commandment in the law "? Jesus Christ answered him: "Love your Lord God with all your heart all your soul and all your mind. This is the first and the greatest commandment. The second is a similar to it: love your neighbor, as yourself. On these two commandments all the law and prophets are confirmed".
Another lawyer asked Him about the second commandment: "And who is my neighbor"? Jesus Christ answering him, told of this parable: One Hebrew went from Jerusalem and was caught by robbers who removed his clothing, covered him with wounds and left him, and left him hardly alive. Accidentally by this road was travelling a priest, who came by, looked at him and went away. Similarly the "левит" was there too, he approached, looked and went away. After them came the Samaritan. He saw the Jew covered with wounds, felt sorry for him, bandaged his wounds, pouring on them of fur-trees and a wine, placed him on the donkey, brought him to the hotel and there he cared for him. And the next day, leaving, he gave to the owner of the hotel two dinars and said: "take care of him and if you will spend more, when I return I will give it to you".
After this Jesus Christ asked the lawyer: "what do you think, who from these three was the neighbor to the one who was caught by the robbers"? - "The one who showed him the mercy", the lawyer has answered. Then Jesus Christ told him: "go, and do likewise".

Эта притча говорит о том, что нужно быть милосердными и помогать; нужно помогать всем, а не только своим (нельзя быть ксенофобами) и часто незначительный человек, из-за его смиренмя, перед Богом он больший чем знаменитый.
О милосердном самарянине (из Евангелия).
(Луки 10:25-37). (31янв10)
25 И вот, один законник встал и, искушая Его, сказал: Учитель! что мне делать, чтобы наследовать жизнь вечную? 26 Он же сказал ему: в законе что написано? как читаешь? 27 Он сказал в ответ: возлюби Господа Бога твоего всем сердцем твоим, и всею душею твоею, и всею крепостию твоею, и всем разумением твоим, и ближнего твоего, как самого себя. 28 Иисус сказал ему: правильно ты отвечал; так поступай, и будешь жить. 29 Но он, желая оправдать себя, сказал Иисусу: а кто мой ближний? 30 На это сказал Иисус: некоторый человек шел из Иерусалима в Иерихон и попался разбойникам, которые сняли с него одежду, изранили его и ушли, оставив его едва живым. 31 По случаю один священник шел тою дорогою и, увидев его, прошел мимо. 32 Также и левит, быв на том месте, подошел, посмотрел и прошел мимо. 33 Самарянин же некто, проезжая, нашел на него и, увидев его, сжалился 34 и, подойдя, перевязал ему раны, возливая масло и вино; и, посадив его на своего осла, привез его в гостиницу и позаботился о нем; 35 а на другой день, отъезжая, вынул два динария, дал содержателю гостиницы и сказал ему: позаботься о нем; и если издержишь что более, я, когда возвращусь, отдам тебе. 36 Кто из этих троих, думаешь ты, был ближний попавшемуся разбойникам? 37 Он сказал: оказавший ему милость. Тогда Иисус сказал ему: иди, и ты поступай так же.
About Good Samaritan (from the Gospel)
(Luke 10:25-37 NKJV). (31янв10)
25 And behold, a certain lawyer stood up and tested Him, saying, “Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life?”26 He said to him, “What is written in the law? What is your reading of it?” 27 So he answered and said, “ ‘You shall love the LORD your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your strength, and with all your mind,’[cf] and ‘your neighbor as yourself.’”[cg] 28 And He said to him, “You have answered rightly; do this and you will live.” 29 But he, wanting to justify himself, said to Jesus, “And who is my neighbor?” 30 Then Jesus answered and said: “A certain man went down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell among thieves, who stripped him of his clothing, wounded him, and departed, leaving him half dead. 31 Now by chance a certain priest came down that road. And when he saw him, he passed by on the other side. 32 Likewise a Levite, when he arrived at the place, came and looked, and passed by on the other side. 33 But a certain Samaritan, as he journeyed, came where he was. And when he saw him, he had compassion. 34 So he went to him and bandaged his wounds, pouring on oil and wine; and he set him on his own animal, brought him to an inn, and took care of him. 35 On the next day, when he departed,[ch] he took out two denarii, gave them to the innkeeper, and said to him, ‘Take care of him; and whatever more you spend, when I come again, I will repay you.’ 36 So which of these three do you think was neighbor to him who fell among the thieves?” 37 And he said, “He who showed mercy on him.” Then Jesus said to him, “Go and do likewise.”
Как видим, данная притча очень поучительная.
О милосердном царе и безжалостном заимодавце.(Матфея 18:21-35) [Луки 17:3-4]. (01фев10)Один человек был должен царю десять тысяч талантов (более 20 миллионов рублей). Так как ему нечем было заплатить, то царь велел продать его жену и детей и все его имения. Но должник упал на колени перед царем и стал просить его: потерпи на мне, я все заплачу тебе». Царь пожалел его и простил ему долг. Должник же, выйдя от царя, встретил своего друга, который должен был ему только сто динариев (немного более 20 рублей) схватил его и начал душить, говоря: «отдай мне что должен». Друг упал на колени и стал просить: «потерпи немного и все отдам тебе». Но тот не хотел ждать и посадил его в тюрму. Царь, когда узнал об этом, то призвал к себе жестокого раба и сказал ему: «злой раб, я простил тебе, потому что ты упросил меня. Не нужно ли было бы и тебе простить своего друга»? Царь рассердился и приказал посадить злого раба в тюрьму, пока он не выплатит весь свой долг.       Рассказав эту притчу, Иисус Христос прибавил: «Так и Отец Мой Небесный поступит с вами, если не простит каждый из вас от сердца своего брату своему согрешений его».
About Merciful King and Cruel Lender.(Matthew 18:21-35) [Luke 17:3-4]. (30янв10)One person owed to the king ten thousand talents (more than 20 million rubles). Since he could not pay, the king ordered to sell his wife and children and all its property. But the debtor fell on his knees and started to beg: "bear with me, and I will pay everything to you". The king felt sorry for him and forgave him his debt. The debtor, when leaving the king, met his friend, who owed him only one hundred dinars (a little more than 20 rubles) he grabbed him and started to choke him, saying: "give me everything you owe me". The friend fell on his knees and begged him "bear with me, and I will return everything to you". But he did not want to wait and put him in a jail. When the king learned about it he called his cruel servant and told him: "evil servant, I forgave you because you asked me. Were not you supposed to forgive your friend"? The king got angry and ordered to put evil servant to a jail until he pays off all his debt.       After telling this parable, Jesus Christ added following: "And My Heavenly Father will do the same thing to you if you will not forgive your brother from yor heart".

Эта притча говорит о том, что: нужно быть милосердными и помогать; часто люди ожидают помощь, а сами никому не помогают; если мы никому не помогаем, то тогда нельзя ожидать от Господа Бога помощи; предпоследний стих этого отрывка указывает на жестокие нравы людей до пришествия Господа Иисуса Христа (34 И, разгневавшись, государь его отдал его истязателям, пока не отдаст ему всего долга). Под влиянием христианской проповеди, люди постепенно изменились.
О мытаре и фарисее.(Луки 18:9-14). (31янв10)Предупреждая нас, чтобы мы не гордились и не хвалили себя, а смиренно признавали себя грешными, Господь сказал такую притчу. Два человека пришли в храм помолиться, один из них был фарисей, а другой мытарь. Фарисей стал в храме впереди и молился так: «Боже! благодарю Тебя, что я не таков, как прочие люди: грабители, обидчики, или как этот мытарь - пощусь два раза в неделю и отдаю десятую часть из всего, что приобретаю». Мытарь же стоял вдали и не смел даже поднять глаз своих на небо, а только повторял, ударяя себя в грудь: «Боже милостив буди мне грешному»! - Сказываю вам, прибавил Господь, что мытарь пошел в дом свой более оправданным, нежели фарисей, потому что всякий, возвышающий сам себя, унижен будет, а унижающий себя возвысится».      В Церкви эта притча читается в третье воскресенье перед Великим Постом и поэтому она называется Неделя мытаря и фарисея. Эта притча нас учит не гордится и не хвастаться, а быть смиренными и признавать свои грехи.
About Pharisee and Tax Collector.(Luke 18:9-14). (31янв10)Warning us that we should not be proud (arrogant) and should not praise ourselves, but humbly admit our sinfulness, the Lord said this parable. Two persons entered the church to pray, one of them was Pharisee, and the other was Tax Collector. The Pharisee stood in the church in front and prayed as follows: "My God! I thank you, that I am not like other people: robbers, offenders or as this Tax Collector - I fast two times per week, also I give the tenth part from everything that I get". Tax Collector stood at the distance and had not the courage even to lift his eyes to the the sky but only repeated, striking itself on the chest: "O merciful God have mercy on me the sinner"! - I am telling you, the Lord said, that the Tax Collector went home justified, rather than Pharisee because anybody, raising himself, will be lowered, and the one who lowers himself will be raised".      In the Church this parable is read on the third Sunday before the Great Lent and consequently it is called the Week of Pharisee and Tax Collector. This parable teaches us not to be proud and not to brag, and to be restrained and to recognize his own sins.
Эта притча говорит о том, что: (1) нельзя гордиться; (2) гордыня один из самых больших грехов, с ней связано высокомерие, зависть, желание унизить других, ксенофобия, расизм, русофобия и т.д.; (3) часто незначительный человек, из-за его смиренмя, перед Богом он больший чем знаменитый.
5а. О мытаре и фарисее (из Евангелия).(Луки 18:9-14). (31янв10) 9 Сказал также к некоторым, которые уверены были о себе, что они праведны, и уничижали других, следующую притчу: 10 два человека вошли в храм помолиться: один фарисей, а другой мытарь. 11 Фарисей, став, молился сам в себе так: Боже! благодарю Тебя, что я не таков, как прочие люди, грабители, обидчики, прелюбодеи, или как этот мытарь: 12 пощусь два раза в неделю, даю десятую часть из всего, что приобретаю. 13 Мытарь же, стоя вдали, не смел даже поднять глаз на небо; но, ударяя себя в грудь, говорил: Боже! будь милостив ко мне грешнику! 14 Сказываю вам, что сей пошел оправданным в дом свой более, нежели тот: ибо всякий, возвышающий сам себя, унижен будет, а унижающий себя возвысится.
5a. About Pharisee and Tax Collector (from the Gospel)(Luke 18:9-14 NKJV). (31янв10)9 Also He spoke this parable to some who trusted in themselves that they were righteous, and despised others:10 “Two men went up to the temple to pray, one a Pharisee and the other a tax collector.11 The Pharisee stood and prayed thus with himself, ‘God, I thank You that I am not like other men – extortioners, unjust, adulterers, or even as this tax collector.12 I fast twice a week; I give tithes of all that I possess.’13 And the tax collector, standing afar off, would not so much as raise his eyes to heaven, but beat his breast, saying, ‘God, be merciful to me a sinner!’14 I tell you, this man went down to his house justified rather than the other; for everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, and he who humbles himself will be exalted.”

О талантах.(Матфея 25:13-30) [Луки 19:11-28]. (01фев10)И другую притчу сказал Го

 

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